The ECU must be removed from the car and is programmed by special spring contacts without soldering on the circuit board. This method is used for example if a car has no connection from the OBD connector to the ECU or for very new ECU versions. The best tool for this is the BDM100.
Which way of programming is used, depends on manufacturer, model, year and the ECU type in the car. Generally we use the “easiest” way of programming. So if a car can be programmed by the OBD port, we will do it this way.
After the security entries for the OBD2 programming get more and more difficult, a new possibility has come up for chip-tuning of ECUs with Motorola MPC555 – 565.